Small Scale Rainbow Trout Farming
When selecting the production site, it is important to check the quality and quantity (volume) of available water, as well as the suitability of the site where the new fish farm is planned to be constructed. A rule of thumb is that about 10 litres/sec (600 litres/min) of water source should be calculated for each 1 tonne of rainbow trout produced.
In general, both cold surface and underground waters are good for trout farming. In the case of surface water, the daily (day and night) fluctuation in temperature may be a few degrees (2–4 °C), while the seasonal (summer and winter) changes of water temperature may be as much as 5–15 °C. The temperature of springs and underground waters has no daily fluctuation and the differences between winter and summer are minimal if any.
The availability (quantity) of water may change considerably according to seasons, especially in the case of surface waters and springs. In dry seasons, the water supply may drastically reduce while heavy rains often cause floods and sudden increases in the water quantity of springs.
Therefore, the production capacity of a trout farm has to be planned according to the safe minimum quantity of water available. However, the protection of the farms against floods should be designed on the basis of the highest flood ever experienced. To reduce risk, a table of the seasonal fluctuation of the water source should be elaborated.
In order to avoid flooding, the farm should be constructed in a location higher than the flood-affected areas. This can be done if water is taken and conveyed to the fish farm through a service canal.
Steps in the implementation of a new trout production unit or farm The entire future success of a new fish farm depends on how the different steps of construction are completed regardless of the size of the farm. If everything, including timing and budgeting, is well planned and prepared, considerable time and money can be saved.
Elaboration of engineering design and technical drawings is the first step after deciding to construct a new fish farm or production unit. Elaboration of the engineering plans is important and cannot be omitted. The benefits of a reliable engineering design are incomparably higher than the expenses of their elaboration, which is usually affordable.
Acquisition of permissions is also important. Without the necessary permissions the construction should not start. The range of the permissions needed varies from country to country, or even from region to region within the same country. Especially in many mountainous regions, which are part of protected areas or national parks, obtaining permissions might be complicated.
Construction is the third step of the implementation. With a reliable engineering design, not only budgeting and programming but also the execution of the construction will be easier. Although much of the construction work can be done using one’s own labour resources, it is recommended that a skilled bricklayer and plumber be contracted. They will ensure that the work is of the required quality.
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